Ossett History - 19th Century
SE Hammer & Stithy - Dewsbury Road, near to Ossett, Wakefield, Great Britain Photographer: Betty Longbottom (find more nearby); Date Taken: Saturday, Submitted: Sunday, 2 March, ; Category: Public house > Public house. Full details about the Hammer & Stithy, WF5 9PE including address, contact details, reviews and comments - Use our on-line Search system and our Rosette . The ultimate information package about Hammer And Stithy Limited including of Hammer And Stithy Limited, a firm which is situated at Dewsbury Road, in Ossett. Date of Accounts, , , . The Mews Hotel Limited ( mile); One Life Leisure Limited ( mile); Lyntonella Limited .
These men also distributed poor relief and made out rate notes. Its operation was overseen by an elected Board of Guardians, 23 in number, representing its 11 constituent parishes. Ossett was represented by two elected Guardians and the workhouse at Flushdyke went out of use.
In the early 19th century, Ossett had a prison, which was located in the market place, adjacent to the old Grammar School. However, in it was knocked down and the stone given to the Grammar School for an extension. Prisoners were sent to the gaol in Wakefield instead.
Primitive local justice prevailed and Ossett had a set of stocks in the market place as well as a ducking stool and pond on Ossett Green. At this time, the residents of Ossett had another official of importance.
This was the pinder and every town had one. It was the pinder's job to take charge of all animals found straying on the roads and to put them in the "pinfold".
Ossett's pinfold, located down West Wells is still in existence in and after a wall was demolished in a car accident, it is now in a good state of repair. The pinfold at West Wells dates only from and the original medieval pinfold was located somewhere in the area of Dale Street, opposite the Co-operative supermarket.
On April 17ththe local Board of Health agreed to exchange the original pinfold of square yards with Mr. William Gartside, for another plot adjacent to the West Well square yards. In those days, many animals were kept by families living in Ossett and they frequently strayed. The pinder's fee for releasing an impounded cow was one shilling and for a sheep, four pence. One year, the Ossett pinder was criticised for only spending 14s.
Not Ossett's pinfold, but this is a typical of how they were constructed. This excellent example is in Morton, Nottinghamshire. Cellars were undrained and often served as receptacles of evil smelling liquid a couple of feet deep.
Wells were the only source of an imperfect and tainted water supply and there were no street lights. In the summer ofParliament had to rise early because of the stench of sewage in undrained London. When Victoria's husband, Prince Albert died from typhoid in Decemberusually one man in three died from infectious fever.
In Ossett, the smoke from mill chimneys was an additional complication. Boilers were crude and skills in steam raising had still to be acquired. It is generally agreed that "where there is muck, there is brass" and every mill chimney had a plume of thick black smoke.
But food had become cheaper. Ina letter sent from Ossett to Australia said: Good legs of mutton at 6d. When Ossett's industry expanded, it was possible and customary for each family to be separately housed and during the nineteenth century this gave the town a large number of "one up and one down" houses, some of them back to back.
In the larger houses of the better off, there were four poster beds fitted with curtains, which when drawn, gave a small degree of privacy and also protection from the cold. In the workman's "one up and one down" the custom was for the father and mother to sleep in the living room in a "shut up" bed.
This was a bed, which folded up into a wooden case fitted with doors, which were kept closed during the day. The children slept, usually several to a bed upstairs, sometimes top to tail. By the end of the century, there was a growing desire for more than one bedroom. Four poster beds gave way to metal framed beds with brass knobs and sprung mattresses, and shut up beds became scarce. A large house with four bedrooms was built in Headlands, Ossett around and it had the luxury of a well in the kitchen from which a hand pump would deliver water directly into the sink.
Bizarrely, one of its bedrooms was only accessible by first passing through another bedroom. On a poorer level, one family in Ossett until aboutregularly received bags of rags from a rag merchant and sorted the dirty rags in the living room. This was at one time common practice in Ossett. Another household in Little Town End, having a donkey but no stable for it, brought the animal into the living room at night and tethered it to the foot of the bed.
These practices were not typical and they belonged firmly to the nineteenth century. The material development in Ossett during the nineteenth century was great. The population of the town at the end of the nineteenth century was four times as great as at the beginning, and in all obvious material aspects, the town was in better condition and was far more wealthy than it was a hundred years before.
A sketch of what the old Ossett Church in the Market Place was believed to have looked like. The sketch is by Mr. Garlick, who for many years was the Borough Surveyor of Ossett. The Churches The Church of England was more fortunately placed in Ossett than the Methodist movement and the church occupied the traditional site in the town centre, i.
The authorities realised that the population was much greater than when the church was built and the first national census, taken inrevealed that the population of Ossett was 3, persons. It was therefore decided to build a new larger church. The architects were the George Straffords, father and son, of Wakefield. They planned to knock down the existing church and rebuild on the existing foundations, plus the desired extension.
Additional stone for the construction would be taken from the public quarry at Storrs Hill. The alterations were begun in May and the new church was roofed by the 1st of July, a speed of construction that would attract attention even today. Why they used the old foundations again is not clear, but a glance at some of the old property remaining in the town a few years ago indicated that it was normal practice at the time.
It was generally felt that the style of the building was influenced by John Carr's fine St. Peter's Church in Horbury. However, the general consensus was that the church was ugly and it was described in the "Wakefield Express" as a "very bad specimen of the Italian style. The remains of the old Ossett Church in the Market Place, built inabout to be demolished in This is believed to be one of the oldest photographs of Ossett.
A considerable part of the expense of the rebuilding was borne by the curate of Ossett who had large private funds and who, it is reputed, spent more money on the parish than he ever drew from it. He was the Revd. Kilvington was a very heavy man and was only 39 years of age at the time of the rebuilding of the Ossett Chapel.
He ultimately became so heavy and so big that he could not mount the pulpit steps. This led to the installation of a three-decker pulpit, which was in reality, a primitive lift. Before the service, he got into his chair at the bottom of the pulpit steps and then the sexton, by hauling a rope, slowly wound him up to the top level. Kilvington, the son of a Wakefield shopkeeper, lived in Ossett with his father and a Madam Powley, who was the widow of the late Vicar of Dewsbury and Kilvington's patron.
A legendary figure, Madam Powley, it is said, took large quantities of snuff, which she sieved herself and was always carried to church in a sedan chair. Kilvington left Ossett to become the first vicar of a new and much larger Trinity Church in Ripon from to The church, dedicated to the Holy Trinity, was erected by the Rev.
Kilvington died at Ripon aged 68 "after a short but severe illness" in January and was fondly remembered there for his charity work on behalf of the poor. The Reverend Edward Kilvington, M. Ossett born Benjamin Inghamhad first gone to Palermo in Sicily in to trade in cloth for the family firm of Ingham Bros and Co.
He was the founder of Ingham, Stephens and Co. In MarchIngham died and left his vast fortune to his nephews who had moved to Sicily to help him run the family business.
The Hammer & Stithy in Ossett
The Whitaker familywho had a successful maltsters business in Ossett and were also related to Benjamin Ingham funded the construction of the stained glass West Window in the new church. Benjamin Ingham was also to fund the stained glass East Window. Benjamin Ingham of Palermo and Ossett - Space constraints necessitated a wholesale relocation from the Market Place in Ossett: On 30 Junethe foundation stone was laid by the Vicar, the Reverend Thomas Lee, who also placed the final stone on top of the steeple in May As the century progressed, there was a massive expansion in the number of churches and chapels in Ossett.
The special characteristic of the time was the religious dedication of ordinary people. They had unquestioning belief in their religion and were willing to accept any obligations or hardships of service. Many of them believed that every word of the Bible was divinely inspired and they disputed fiercely about the exact meaning of its verses.
Some Ossett Chapels insisted that their members should attend as many as four services on Sunday and also two more during the week. The members not only did so, but did so eagerly. Their whole lives revolved around their church or chapel and there were many different flavours of Christianity in Ossett, including Baptists, Anglicans, Primitive Methodists, Wesleyan Methodists, Roman Catholics and Congregationalists.
A great dedication to religion was an almost nationwide feature of life, but it produced some very striking effects in Ossett, particularly during the ten year period between and In spite of low wages and the concentration of money in relatively few hands, during these years the following buildings were constructed: This is the only occasion during the long history of Ossett when anything of this kind occurred and it altered the life of the town until the drift away from religion, which occurred between the two world wars.
Sadly, by only three of the ten buildings listed were still being used for their original purpose. In addition to the ten churches listed above, Christ Church, South Ossett had been completed in after South Ossett was made into a separate ecclesiastical parish on the 27th November after separation from Dewsbury.
Aidan's Mission church, the foundation stone of which was laid on the 16th April Ossett did not become a separate parish until It had been subject to the Vicar of Dewsbury ever since the Archbishop of York licensed it on June 13thand members of the Anglican Church in Ossett had to be buried in Dewsbury until a burial ground was made in Ossett on Church Street in Christ Church, South Ossett completed and consecrated in Construction of churches and chapels did not stop and other religious establishments were subsequently built in the town.
The ' Ossett Observer' dated 13th December noted that "a three day Bazaar is being held to raise funds for the new Wesleyan Chapel. The new stone building, off Dewsbury Road possesses few external embellishments, is of copious neatness and seems well calculated to supply the needs of the local society for a number of years to come.
The ground floor has six rooms for classes and upstairs one large room, which will seat persons and be used for Sunday School as well as chapel. When this shall become insufficient, the trustees have ample property between the building and the road on which to erect a spacious building for chapel purposes solely.
The new Chapel was opened by Mr. Joshua Wilson who had left Ossett 15 years earlier said he was glad to come and open the bazaar. Gawthorpe Hand Bell Ringers provided entertainment. H Wilson and Josiah Wilson were from a different clan entirely, who originated in Norfolk. I recall this Wesleyan Chapel, which was derelict and falling into disrepair when I moved, as a small child, from Station Road to the top of Kingsway in I think it was demolished in about and all the hopes of the Trustees for expansion came to nothing.
The Catholic Parish of St. Ignatius, Ossett was founded from St. Austin's, Wakefield in The present beautiful Church, built in brick in Romanesque style with vaulted roof, was opened by the Rt.
Cowgill, Bishop of Leeds in During the century, there had been great changes in people's beliefs, their customs and their ways of life, and their ideas of what was right and proper. References have been made to the dominant position of the Established Church in earlier centuries and how people were compelled to believe, or rather acquiesce, in its teachings, but the rise of the Non-conformist Churches during the eighteenth century, reaching full vigour during the nineteenth century was evidence of great change.
This change was very much in evidence in Ossett. They did not normally collaborate with other Churches and in fact were usually jealous of them. During the nineteenth century, no Protestant would be willing to be friendly with a Roman Catholic and there was even hostility between school children.
This continued into the 20th century and was evident with the matter of fact relationship between the children attending St.
Hammer and stithy pub ossett dating. bodrumeskort.info
The general belief in literal divine inspiration of every word in the Bible had peculiar effects, and one of them was the extensive use of Bible names.
The Fothergills in Ossett Common, having three sons, christened them Shadrack, Meshach and Abednego who according to the Bible, survived a night in King Nebuchadnezzar's fiery furnace when God protected themand there were many other examples. An attempt to define or explain religious beliefs would be out of place here, but it is worth mentioning some general effects. One of the most commonly accepted ideas was the belief in Heaven, Hell, the Day of Judgement and the resurrection of the body.
The latter belief led to a man at South Ossett around insisting that his coffin should be buried upright so that, being already on his feet, he could the more quickly jump out on the morning of Resurrection. She left money for scholarships for two Ossett boys at Ossett Grammar School and funds for poor people at several Ossett Churches.
She died in and was buried in the private burial ground of the family in an airtight coffin, which had in its lid a small window opposite her head. Belief in a burning fiery hell disturbed the later years of many who had led colourful lives and it also led to the hurried baptism of ailing new-born babies.
The Schools Eight years later, there was rejoicing when Napoleon had been sent to Elba and it was decided to build a Sunday School in Ossett in thankfulness for the ending of the Napoleonic Wars with France that had lasted over 20 years.
The new school was built at the end of Old Church Street, most of the site now being part of Ventnor Way. The building will have been familiar to most Ossett folks as the Shaw Peace printing works. There was a bold inscription over the main entrance saying "Church of England Sunday School.
In Commemoration of Peace. The lower half of the original headstone is displayed in the boundary wall of the Methodist Church abutting Ventnor Way, which faces the former site of the Sunday School. We only meagre information about the use of the new school. Sunday schools were a relatively new development. Dewsbury Parish Church established one inthe first in Yorkshire. Schools were not numerous, since they had to be provided out of public funds, but they were valuable.
There was no system of public education and they were virtually the only means by which working people could learn to read and write. The schools, of course, gave priority to religious instruction, but they also taught simple arithmetic and gave whatever other general education they could.
Later in the century, the Sunday schools had classes for "Mutual Improvement", Debating Societies, and before there were public libraries, they established small libraries of their own. Instruction was given during Sundays and weekday evenings. A little is known about the sessions of the new Anglican Sunday School as they conducted by the Vicar on Sundays. The scholars occupied the main part of the buildings, boys on one side and girls on the other side, with a partition down the middle of such a height that they could not see each other.
The Curate occupied a raised position at the Kingsway end of the building, so placed that he could see everybody as he put them through the Catechism. Steps were taken to ensure discipline and this was done by stationing the verger or sexton on a high stool at the Wesley Street end of the building.
He was equipped with a very long rod or cane and it was his duty to give a sharp tap on the head of any youngster who was not concentrating properly.
For the privilege of attending school, a charge of one penny was made and if any child was missing from the school on the Sunday, the Curate called at the child's home during the week to collect the missing coin. Few particulars are available about the change of the Sunday schools to day schools, but there is some information about the Wesleyan School in Wesley Street.
The premises erected on the original plot of land was bought in and continued in use until new premises were built in These were the premises that were used as an elementary scholl by generations of Ossett children until the opening of Southdale Council School on August 22nd, The Southdale School was the first in the town provided by the Local Authority.
The building of the new Wesley Street premises was a considerable achievement for the Wesleyan Methodists in Ossett. The two storey building had an upper storey consisting one large room with an elaborate pulpit at the end furthest away from Wesley Street and a sloping gallery with a cloakroom underneath at the Wesley Street end. This large room was used for Church services and then during the week, it became an elementary school, accommodating children divided into five classes.
Downstairs, there were several small rooms, which held two classes from the Senior School above and also accommodated the Infants School.
It wasn't long after completion of this ambitious new building that it began to be used as an Elementary School. The Church Trustees maintained control, but they let the building for use as a school, every day but Sunday, to a man named Lucas at a rent of one shilling and sixpence a week. The present proprietors, Mr. Riley, have taken up the family business with an energy and enterprise, which have brought the firm right to the forefront. The firm has been responsible for the pyrotechnic displays in some of the best-known galas in the North of England.
In and the firm secured the contract for the seasonal fireworks displays at Bridlington Spa. They have a big reputation for their spectacular displays, which illustrate Niagara Falls and the Taj Mahal, and include many comical devices, which are exceedingly popular with the Northern crowds. It is scarcely credible, but it is nevertheless true, that they manufacture between and different kinds of fireworks, and their manufactures are popular wherever youth foregathers.
Their war service deserves special mention. From Augustto the end of the War they were fully employed by the War Office and the Admiralty, and their special knowledge of explosives was extremely useful. They filled as many as between eight and nine million grenades, made red and green square cartridges to the extent of a quarter of a million, andparachute cartridges; they were responsible for 6, smoke boxes for the Admiralty, and for three thousand deck flares which were used as smoke screens, especially by merchant and passenger ships.
That is a war record to be proud of. Since the Armistice the firm has gone back to the normal pyrotechnic and fireworks trade. However, despite the optimistic words above, disaster was to ruin this Ossett business and cause it to close overnight.
The 'Ossett Observer' for August 20thhad the following story: Riley and Sons, firework manufacturers of Wakefield Road, Ossett.
The explosion, the cause of which cannot at present be explained, took place in the chemical shed, one of the several detached buildings where the firm's work is carried on. Four persons were working at the time, these being Messrs. Bottomley employeesall married men and residing in Springstone Avenue and Mr.
Riley was alive when picked up, but died before his removal. The two others were dead when found outside the building, which was completely shattered by the explosion. Harvey Sheldrake was in an adjoining shed and escaped personal injury, though he was obviously suffering from shock.
The effects of the explosion were felt in various parts of the town and windows were smashed in the Fern House Working Men's Club, in Wakefield Road, opposite Messrs. Ossett Fire Brigade and Ambulance were quickly on the scene after the alarm, one length of hose being sufficient to prevent the possibility of fire. We understand that the injuries were of a terrible nature and two of the bodies those of Ward and Bottomley being practically dismembered.
Death was obviously instantaneous in their case. Riley, whose injuries appeared to be in the lower part of the body, lived 10 or 15 minutes after the occurrence. The explosion was so terrific that people in all parts of the town immediately rushed into the streets to inquire the cause, and when the fire 'buzzer' was heard shortly afterwards, people wended their way, as if by intuition, in the direction of Riley's factory. Within a comparatively short space of time a huge crowd had gathered on the scene, regardless of the danger of close proximity to buildings of that nature and it was with some difficulty that they could be induced to stand clear.
It was fortunate that there was no outburst of flames, but as a precautionary measure, the brigade saturated the remains of the wreckage. The building was practically razed to the ground, and the contents were scattered in all directions. The force of the explosion can be imagined from the fact that two of the bodies were found outside the area of the building, whilst windows were broken in a house in Tumbling Close, some yards away.
The tragedy cast a gloom over the town, all the victims being well-known and highly esteemed. The deepest sympathy is felt with the families of the deceased men in their sad bereavement. Each of the victims leaves a widow and one child. Originally, they had premises on Prospect Road in Ossett. They took over larger premises originally built for electrical contracting firm East Midlands Electricity, which was built roughly where Longlands House has stood previously.